This book explains why, when and how humanity invented various religions and gods.

The process began around 100,000 years ago; during this epoch, many nomadic human bands, all over the world, invented primitive languages and began to decipher each happening around them. Whatever they could not comprehend, their chiefs or priests attributed to some unseen power.

At some point in time, we do not know exactly when it happened, humans invented an activity: they began to worship each seen or unseen power, which was beyond their control, but could either harm or help them. They invented almost identical methods of worship, such as folding their hands, bowing, kneeling, floral offering, prayers and sacrifices.

For example, anthropologists believe that during the last Ice Age, humans had largely inadequate protection against cold; their survival depended largely upon available sunlight—something beyond their control. In that scenario, solar worship was a logical outcome. In a similar manner, they found thunder and lightning inexplicable and frightening; gradually, they began to worship the sky as a god. There is enough historical evidence to assert that the ancestors of Hindus, Buddhists, Jews, Christians and Muslims worshiped the sun and the sky, before their religions came into practice.

The ability to speak and share their ideas helped humans invent many useful devices such as hearths, stitching needles, leathers and footwear. With their aid, they began to lead an easier, healthier and safer life. Consequently, their population began to increase: approximately 10,000 years ago, it exploded to such an extent that they faced a food crisis. Since necessity is the mother of inventions, several human bands invented the technique of cultivation. Farming necessitated them to settle down near fields and ultimately gave rise to homes, villages, cities and civilizations. Gradually, farmers began to face famine caused by droughts and floods. The priests of several places in the world visualized fertility gods and goddesses behind the growth of their crop, and people began to worship them.

Around 3,000 years ago, cultivation paved the way for another population explosion. At the same time, a sedentary lifestyle exposed people to pets, rodents, mosquitoes, houseflies and other parasites. All these factors together gave rise to devastating new diseases such as cholera, tuberculosis, typhoid and plague. Furthermore, huge population instigated social diseases such as poverty, inequality, injustice, crime and exploitation. Consequently, most people were forced to lead miserable lives no better than hell. Around this time, several saints such as the Buddha and Moses visualized the remedies of human sufferings. Contemporary priests transcribed their teachings as the holy scriptures. These books mentioned worship of new gods, sacrifices, magic or morals to eradicate human miseries: the miserable masses had no option but to follow those advices. These scriptures fashioned the organized religions of today. Thus, history demonstrates that whenever humans faced a new challenge, priests invented a more useful deity and consigned the older one to oblivion.

Although humanity invented gods to wrestle with their mysteries and miseries, religious dogmas halted the progress of science, facilitated human exploitation, instigated many massacres and wars throughout history and ultimately gave rise to modern terrorism. The knowledge about the evolution of gods may vaccinate the readers against the disease of fanaticism.

Let us think for a moment why humanity developed several religious concepts but only one science. For example, one dogma avers idol worship and the other asserts the contrary: scientific principles have no such ambiguities. There is a concrete reason behind this contradiction: about one thing or concept there is only one truth, but there can be many lies. This book is an effort to light a candle in the darkest corner of human consciousnes